Georgian language
Georgian language

Georgian language is the official language of Georgia. In the world number of speakers of Georgian language is more than 7 million people.

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Georgian language belongs to the Kartvelian group of Ibero-Caucasian language family; the same group includes several Kartvelian languages-dialects: Megrelian-Laz and Svan. According to the Georgian author of the XII century Leonti Mroveli, Georgian alphabet was created by king Farnavaz I in IV century BC.

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From the earliest centuries, an old Georgian writing- Mrglovani (Asomtavruli) was used; since IX century - nuskhuri (nuskha-Khutsuri, Khutsuri, ecclesiastical writing); and since the XI century - an Mkhedruli (Mkhedruli-heli, civil). Mrglovani was distinguished by a rounded shape. It was replaced by Nuskhuri, which was distinguished by economy, angular sloping sketch. In the X century Mkhedreuli formed from Nuskhuri with different vertical size and rounded shapes.

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Mkhedruli alphabet contains 33 letters, sounds (graphemes), which perfectly reflect the sound composition of the Georgian language – There are 28 consonants and 5 vowels in Georgian alphabet.

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To this day, the oldest monument of Georgian writing are considered the inscription on monastery in discovered on Palestine (429—444 years), as well as the inscription on Asomtavruli in Bolnisi Sion (493-494 years.).

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Interesting facts about the Georgian language and literature:

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1. The Georgian script appears together with thirteen other writing systems in the so called list of the world's 14 original writing systems

2. The Georgian alphabet is one of the few languages in the world, the number of letters of which correspond to the number of sounds

3. Georgian language has words of 8 consonants in a row - გვფრცქვნის (gvprtskvnis). But in the famous Georgian poem, "The Knight in the Panther's Skin" the word with 11 consonants in a row - ვეფხვთმბრდღვნელი is used and sounds like - vefkhvtmbrdgvneli

4. In the Georgian language: "Mom" means Dad, "Deda” means Mom, "Papa" – means Grandfather, "Bebia” means Grandmother

5. In the Georgian language is no division between male and female gender. The same pronoun may mean "he", "she", "it"

6. In the Georgian script there is no capital letters

7. The earliest inscriptions in the Georgian language belong to the fifth century, the oldest manuscript to the seventh, but the first printed book in Georgian language appeared only in the seventeenth century

8. Endings of Georgian surnames originally pointed to the region, where this man was from (for example, shvili, -dze, -iya, -iani, -ava)

9. Welcoming phrases in Georgian retain traces of militant past (“Dila Mshvidobisa” - "peaceful morning" = Good morning, “Gamardzhoba” - "Victory" = Hello, “Gagimardzhoz” - "Victory to you!" = Your health!)